About rhetoric, storytelling and persuasion

This is a compilation post that brings together my views on closely related topics, collating articles that I published earlier on this blog. It doesn’t contain new content, although part of it may have been slightly reworked. Knowing that the whole is often greater than the sum of its parts, I hope this update provides you with a bigger picture, a more complete list of good practices, or a better grounded opinion.

Persuasion is defined as “human communication that is designed to influence or change a person’s (or a group’s) beliefs, attitudes, intentions, motivations, or behaviors.” In a public presentation, persuasion often boils down to the ability of the speaker to appeal to his audience.

Aristotle’s ethos, pathos and logos

One of the oldest (and most important) theories about persuasion was formulated by the ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle, who lived and worked from 384 to 322 BC.

Aristotle listed four reasons why one should learn the art of persuasion:

  • Truth and justice are perfect; thus if a case loses, it is the fault of the speaker.
  • It is an excellent tool for teaching.
  • A good rhetorician needs to know how to argue both sides to understand the whole problem and all the options.
  • There is no better way to defend one’s self.

In his Art of Rhetoric, Aristotle introduced the persuasive appeals ethos, pathos and logos. Since the 4th century BC, Aristotle’s rhetoric has become one of the foundations of public speaking and, and any public speaker should be (or become) familiar with these three appeals.

  • Ethos means ethical appeal. We tend to believe people whom we respect. We trust in products with a good reputation. We go to places that were recommended on Tripadvisor… So, Ethos is all about the credibility of the speaker. About his or her trustworthiness and reputation. As such, you should never talk about a topic you’re not familiar with, and always adapt your content, presentation style and outfit to the context and the audience.
  • Pathos translates to emotion. We all like stories about the good vs. the bad. We (too) often make decisions motivated by love, admiration, fear or disgust. We prefer presenters that speak passionate about their topic. Telling stories is a way to create a tension with the audience, get them engaged beyond the rational and make them connect
  • Logos stands for reasoning and argumentation. We believe in what we can see and what we can touch. We want statements supported by facts and figures. If not, we keep asking for the Why, the What and the How. This is why one should add real life examples, case studies, and customer testimonials to his or her story.

If you think about it, ethos, pathos and logos are present in almost every area of our daily lives. And more than we realize, they determine how we (and our audience) experience situations, interact with people and make decisions. And, as for so many other things in life, the whole of Aristotle’s rhetoric is greater than the sum of its three parts: it’s neither about ethos OR pathos OR logos, but all about ethos AND pathos AND logos.

Robert Cialdini’s principles of persuasion

Robert Cialdini is an American professor of marketing, business and psychology, who published a bestselling book about the “Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion.”

Cialdini’s theory of influence is based on the following 6 principles of persuasion, which – like Aristotle’s appeals – should be part of the toolbox of every B2B storyteller:

  • Reciprocity: humans tend to return favors to somebody who has done something good to them. Cater your audience with good content, an inspiring presentation and a positive experience. Probably they will want to give you something back.
  • Liking: we take a more positive stance towards people that we know or that we like. Introduce yourself, break the ice, and explain to your listeners why you’re here. Some of them will start looking at you as a good acquaintance and open up.
  • Authority: men and women have come in to listen to and learn from an expert. Explain them why you have ‘the right to speak’ and why they should listen to you. Your reputation, job title and a quick résumé may certainly help, but also your body language, clothing, and even the use of accessories such as a laser pointer may be instrumental to the perception of your authority.
  • Social proof: listeners often look to their neighbors in the room to guide (and approve) their decisions and (re)actions. So, always look for friends and allies in the audience that can contribute to a positive and constructive atmosphere.
  • Commitment: if people commit, orally or in writing, to an idea or goal, they are likely to stay consistent with that commitment. Start a dialog with your public and try to get their buy-in for your ideas. Poll their opinion, let them share their views or ask questions, and take their comments seriously.
  • Scarcity: the less there is of something, the more it is worth. Announce that you’re going to bring content that is exclusive, exceptional or contains things that you’ve never presented before. They will certainly pay more attention to your words.

In 2016, Cialdini published another book: “Pre-Suasion: A Revolutionary Way to Influence and Persuade,” in which the author introduces a 7th principle…

  • Unity is about shared identities such as race, ethnicity, nationality, and family, as well as political and religious affiliations. These are categories in which the conduct of one member influences the self-esteem of the other members. Put simple, we is the shared me.”

I am not sure if the above principles of persuasion are to be considered science (as Dr. Cialdini positions them) or just common sense. Knowing, understanding and empathizing with your audience (and the people around you) is always key to connecting with them. Use these rules wisely and complement them by tools such as power, influencer and personality quadrants.

But also don’t forget always to be honest, respectful and authentic. Persuasion is not about telling lies, cheating or fooling on people. The best way to charm your audience is by being truthful, while staying your friendly self!

Steven Denning’s narrative patterns

In a blog post about storytelling and persuasion, Steven Denning (a former Program Director of Knowledge Management at the World Bank, and an international authority on leadership, innovation and  management,) introduced the homo narrans as “a person who combines story-telling and analysis in a discourse that is rational, lively, imaginative, open to dialogue, entertaining and persuasive. The kind of person we would like to have at our dinner tables, and with whom we would be willing to discuss even the most difficult and controversial of topics. It is the sort of the person we might like to have as a friend and companion. It is the sort of person we would listen to, since conversing with homo narrans might well lead to the mutual discovery of truth.”

You might also take a look at Denning’s 2005 article “mastering the discipline of business narrative” in which he provides a list of “narrative patterns” from which you may pick a story format for your presentations:

  • Springboard stories refer to concrete situations or problems your audience is facing, to spring them into action. This is an ideal opportunity to bring in your personal experience and talk about a similar situation you were confronted with in the past. It is important that the examples you give have a positive tone and a (sort of) happy ending – which the people in the room can get inspired by, learn from and reuse in their own context.
  • Stories with a moral often take the form of a parable or even of a fairy tale. The stories are usually set in a kind of generic past, and have an explicit moral at the end. The context-setting of these tales may be vague and the facts may be hypothetical, but there must be a clear, believable, and –most important of all– an inspiring take-away at the end.
  • Stories about you are based on an event in your personal life event. They help you emotionally connect with your listeners and put a human face (namely, yours) on a problem or solution. Tapping into personal stories often also means sharing details about your private or professional life. Many people may not feel very comfortable with this idea, and it’s a good practice to think before you act, and never share anything you may later regret.
  • Visionary stories take your audience on a trip to the future, give them a perspective on the “things to come”, and inspire them to take action to make this vision become reality. Some of my favorite visuals to start such a presentation with are the postcards created by French artist Villemard, that depict his visions of the year 2000… in the year 1910.
  • Stories about your brand capitalize on the good reputation of your company, its products or services. These are narratives about happy people who have enjoyed a first class experience with your brand. Turn your audience in advocates too, and enrich your presentation by a few catchy anecdotes or –why not—a video testimonial of a happy customer or a model employee.
  • Knowledge-sharing narratives overall contain few storytelling elements. They concentrate on a (often very specific) problem, a description of the solution and its positive effect(s). This is the pattern most often used in technical presentations. As such, it’s extremely important that you have a good understanding of who is your audience to tailor your presentation to their specific knowledge, needs and expectations.
  • You may also use stories for fostering collaboration between the members of your audience. Make sure you are addressing a concern or goal that is shared by a number of people in the room. You may start your presentation e.g. by a poll, enrich the conversation with your personal experience, and fuel the discussion with provocative statements.
  • Some people may come to your talk with certain prejudices about you or about your presentation content. First thing you’ll have to do in this case is try to debunk the speculations, mock the gossip and tame the grapevine. Apply rational elements, gentle satire, or even reductio ad absurdum techniques, but avoid shocking or ridiculing your audience. Also beware when the prejudice is right, because, as Steven Denning is saying: “If that’s the case, there is little that can be done except to admit the rumor, put it in perspective, and move on.”

A story is an extremely powerful format for delivering your message. By putting things in (a sometimes surprising) context, and wrapping facts in emotion, it helps people ingest, digest and retain the information you present them. A good business narrative taps into your personal strengths or experience, appeals to the specific audience in the room and calls them for action. As such, it should be clear that there is no one-size-fits-all template for a good story, or an exhaustive list of “stories that can be told.”

Elements of classical storytelling

Most novelists and movie directors rely upon 5 key elements to ensure a consistent story, allow the action to develop and let the audience emotionally engage: character, setting, plot, theme, and style.

And, though “telling a story” is often associated with delivering fictive content, the same components can be explored by business presenters too.

  • The character is the individual (or several of them) that the story is about. The answer to the “who?” question. Many narratives introduce protagonists and antagonists — respectively the main characters of the story and their opposites. Note that a protagonist does not necessarily represents the “good guy”, though it’s always the one with whom the reader can identify himself or herself.
  • The setting is the “where? and when?” of a story. It is the time and place during which a  story takes place. This can be in the past, the present or the future, and in an imaginary or a real-life location. Introducing a setting with which your audience is familiar can help them to better visualize the story and feel connected to the plot.
  • The plot defines the structure of a book, movie or talk. The sequence of events and (inter)actions that make up your storyline. Many good plots are centered around a conflict or a problem (the “what?”), the ways in which the characters attempt to resolve the problem (the “how?”), the actual implementation of the solution (a.k.a. the climax), and what happens with them when the conflict is no longer existing (“they all lived happily ever after”.)
  • The theme is the main idea, the central message,  the answer to the “why?” question(s). It’s what the writer, the director, or the presenter wants his audience to learn from the story. It’s the umbrella statement of the message house you’ve prepared, that will translate into the conclusion and/or the call for action at the end of your discourse.
  • And finally, there’s a style element in each presentation you deliver. “How?” do you want to get your message through? How will you tap your audience’s imagination? What will be the tone of your words? What mood or atmosphere do you want to create with them? Is the evidence you provide factual or anecdotal?

Gene Amdahl’s fear, uncertainty and doubt

Most humans tend to be afraid of the unknown. As such, some marketers and sales people (and politicians – but this is out of the context of this post) try to implant fear, uncertainty and doubt (also known as FUD, a term introduced by computer architect and high-tech entrepreneur Gene Amdahl.) In people’s minds to make them buy their products or services, or to prevent them from trying competitors’ ones.

In the previous section I iterated a number of narrative patterns to be (re)used in presentations. Now, I’m adding a few FUD related items to this list:

  • Create a sense of urgency by confronting people with a (familiar) situation, and making them aware of the threats they are facing if they don’t react timely or properly. You may appeal to their emotion and/or ratio by telling anecdotes, referring to case studies or citing from media clippings. A call for action at the end is always a no-brainer: “Act now!” or “Buy now!”
  • Telling a story with open ending can also be a good way to instill doubt. People may start making (sometimes irrational) assumptions and come to (sometimes wrong) conclusions. Feed their imagination and steer their judgment by introducing an antagonist (your competitor), bringing in some gossip, or posing some insinuating questions.
  • By listing the perceived risks of doing (or notdoing) certain things, using (or not using) certain products, or working (or not working) with a certain partner, you may create a feeling of uncertainty. Then relieve your audience’s minds by showing them that you have the best and most safe solution, and that you are the most trustworthy party to deal with.

Although FUD may be an effective competitive weapon, my advice is not to use fear as a tactic (and if you do, apply it scarcely and with caution.) Don’t sling mud to your competitors, but rather give a positive message and to tell a story with a happy ending.


Here are the links to the articles I compiled in this post:

A night at the opera

An opera begins long before the curtain goes up and ends long after it has come down. It starts in my imagination, it becomes my life, and it stays part of my life long after I’ve left the opera house. ― Maria Callas

In my past posts I have written many times about ethos, pathos and logos. The three persuasive appeals, as described by ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle.

Let me briefly recap what these three are all about:

  • Ethos means ethical appeal. We tend to believe people whom we respect. We trust in products with a good reputation. We go to places that were recommended on Tripadvisor…
  • Pathos translates to emotion. We all like stories about the good vs. the bad. We prefer presenters that speak passionate about their topic. We (too) often make decisions motivated by love, admiration, fear or disgust.
  • Logos stands for reasoning and argumentation. We believe in what we can see and what we can touch. We want statements supported by facts and figures. If not, we keep asking for the Why, the What and the How.

If you think about it, ethos, pathos and logos are present in almost every area of our daily lives. And more than we realize, they determine how we experience situations, interact with people and make decisions.

I witnessed this recently myself on a trip to Budapest, where my wife and I spent a night at the opera, watching and listening to Puccini’s Tosca. I am not that frequent opera visitor nor a lifelong opera lover, but this performance really hit my sweet spot, thanks to ― what I interpreted afterwards as a ― perfect mix of ethos, pathos and logos.

  • Ethos: a more than a century old institution that opened in 1884, the Hungarian State Opera House has a very good reputation. The operaház’ acoustics are considered to be among the best in the world. From the moment we entered the venue, we were impressed by its gold-decorated interior and its red velvet seats.


  • Pathos: written by the late 19th century romantic Italian composer Giacomo Puccini, the opera Tosca is filled with emotion. With love, lust and jealousy. A webpage of the Metropolitan Opera describes Tosca’s antagonist Scarpia as “the 19th century’s Darth Vader.” Almost two months after our night at the opera, Scarpia’s words “Beware: this is a place of tears!” (in Italian, “Questo è luogo di lagrime! Badate!”) still echo in my mind.


  • Logos: apart from the wonderful setting and the touching story, my wife and I enjoyed an outstanding interpretation of Tosca. The orchestra and the lead singers delivered a rousing performance. This music would have sounded great on my iPod too!

Lesson learned: as for so many other things in life, the whole of Aristotle’s rhetoric is greater than the sum of its three parts. It’s neither about ethos OR pathos OR logos, but all about ethos AND pathos AND logos.

Other blog posts about the relationship between art and storytelling:

To those who understand life

If you were to say to the grown-ups: “I saw a beautiful house made of rosy brick, with geraniums in the windows and doves on the roof,” they would not be able to get any idea of that house at all. You would have to say to them: “I saw a house that cost 15,000 euros.” Then they would exclaim: “Oh, what a pretty house that is!”

Just so, you might say to them: “The proof that the little prince existed is that he was charming, that he laughed, and that he was looking for a sheep. If anybody wants a sheep, that is a proof that he exists.” And what good would it do to tell them that? They would shrug their shoulders, and treat you like a child. But if you said to them: “The planet he came from is Asteroid B-612,” then they would be convinced, and leave you in peace from their questions.

They are like that. One must not hold it against them. Children should always show great forbearance toward grown-up people.

But certainly, for us who understand life, figures are a matter of indifference.

I should have liked to begin this story in the fashion of the fairy-tales. I should have like to say: “Once upon a time there was a little prince who lived on a planet that was scarcely any bigger than himself, and who had need of a sheep…”

To those who understand life, that would have given a much greater air of truth to my story.

Above is an excerpt from one of my favorite novellas, “The Little Prince” by French aviator and writer Antoine de Saint-Exupéry, which implicitly gives a great definition and provides a strong rationale for storytelling.


Indeed, many people like facts and figures, but those numbers become more meaningful if you embed them into a context that appeals to their emotion. For many professional speakers this should be no surprise at all. Anyone familiar with Aristotle’s ancient art of rhetoric knows that a well-balanced mix of ethos, pathos and logos motivates and persuades your audience – and makes your presentation memorable.

In their book, “Made to Stick: Why Some Ideas Survive and Others Die,” Chip and Dan Heath describe an experiment with students at Stanford University. All pupils had to prepare and deliver a one-minute persuasive speech. After everyone had finished their talk, the students were asked to rate each other on the effectiveness of the presentations and write down the key points they remembered.

  • On average, the presenters used 2.5 figures in their one-minute speeches
  • Only about 1 out of 10 used a personal story to make their point
  • 63% of the class remembered details from the speeches that used stories
  • But only 5% of the audience remembered the statistics

The little prince had it right. Figures are a matter of indifference and, to those who understand life (and IMHO to all the rest of us too), a good story can give a much greater air of truth.

Other articles about this topic that are worth reading:

Cut the crap

This morning I had one in my inbox again. One of those emails with at subject line starting with FW: FW: FW: and with a huge PPS or PPSX file attached. It even passed the virus scan.

As a professional presenter, I used to believe that there is nothing more evil than misusing Microsoft PowerPoint, and that I had seen all possible materializations of bad taste and poor design. But believe me, this canned PowerPoint Show was a scholarly example of everything a good presentation should not have and should not be.

My first reproach is that “delivering” a presentation through email is intrusive. I didn’t ask for this crap. Since the PPS file was blindly forwarded to (what seemed to me like) the sender’s complete address book, its content could impossibly match my interests and needs.

So, as you may guess, the slide show I opened was indeed completely irrelevant to me. There was hardly any structure, and the one-liner statements and the ripped-off-the-web images were extremely corny. OK, I may be a strong advocate of putting pathos in a story, but there should be at least a bit of ethos and logos in it as well.


And finally, poor design, appalling graphics and improper use of animation and sound made the whole presentation untasteful too. Its layout violated almost every single rule I listed in my don’t feed the chameleons post.

You may call me an angry not-so-young-anymore man, but here’s a plea to (fortunately only a small minority of) my dear email contacts: stop wasting your time, my mailbox space and the internet’s bandwidth. And if you still think your oeuvres are a contribution to arts, society or culture, then please upload your PPS files onto Facebook, SlideShare or any other opt-in content sharing site. Email and PowerPoint are already bad enough on their own, so don’t make it even worse.

It takes three to tango

Already in the 4th century B.C., the Greek philosopher Aristotle formulated his theory on the three persuasive appeals: ethos, pathos and logos. Since then, Aristotle’s rhetoric has become one of the foundations of public speaking and, as such, an equilibrated mix of the 3 ingredients should be considered a prerequisite for any well told story.

In an article on the GMK10 pages, a fragment from the movie Braveheart illustrates how Scottish hero William Wallace is appealing to Aristotle’s elements.

Humans like structure and lists. But their capability to recall the things you tell them is often limited to a few items. Two points don’t say enough, while four are often too many to remember. So three it should be.

As already stated and illustrated in my November 7th blog post about Obama and the rule of three, series of 3 have been used by famous speakers like Julius Caesar, Abraham Lincoln, Steve Jobs and Barack Obama.

In his book about “the presentation secrets of Steve Jobs”, Carmine Gallo attributes a complete chapter to the rule of three, calling it “one of the most powerful principles of persuasion”.

“So few communicators incorporate the rule of three in their presentations that you will stand apart simply by doing so. The rule of three—it works for the marines, it works for Jobs, and it will work for you.”

For more reading about the rule of three, you may also check out blog posts by Brian Clark and Andrew Dlugan.

And finally, there is another three-tuple you should always keep in mind as a presenter. Wise words by American writer, lecturer and public speaking teacher Dale Carnegie:

“There are always three speeches for every one you actually gave. The one you practiced, the one you gave, and the one you wish you gave.”