A widely quoted Microsoft study from 2015 tried to tell the world that the time an average person is able to concentrate on a particular subject has fallen to 8 (eight!) seconds. Which is less than the average attention span of a goldfish.

Image by Pogrebnoj-Alexandroff (CC-BY-SA-3.0)

Although the goldfish comparison has been recited by many media and has been (mis)used by marketers to reduce their outreach to twitter-style messaging, it makes little sense – IMHO even no sense at all. Because the world of a goldfish ends at the rim of the glass bowl it’s floating in. Your audience aren’t carp. They are real people with unmet needs and innate curiosity. I know no single business person that would be satisfied with only 140-character content or an eight-second presentation. My personal experience as a public speaker actually tells me that you’ve got at least 15 to 20 minutes before you start losing (some) people’s interest. A number that resonates with the ’20’ figure in Guy Kawasaki’s 10/20/30 rule of PowerPoint.

On the other hand, as observed by Nobel prize and Turing award winner Herbert Simon: “A wealth of information creates a poverty of attention.” It’s not the number of slides or the detail of the content that determines their attentiveness to your audience. Human interest and attention span are determined by their daily problems, their current mood, and the persuasive power of the presenter. Nearly 9 respondents out of 10 to a Prezi survey acknowledged that a strong narrative and the story behind what’s being presented are critical in maintaining engagement.

Here are a few practical tips to keep, refresh or prolong the attention of your audience:

  • Keep your talk short and crisp, and make sure that the first minutes include any material that you want people to remember;
  • Intrigue, surprise or provoke: ask questions, do a quiz or launch a poll;
  • Pause a few seconds before showing a slide or presenting a key message, to create a sense of anticipation. Pause right after a key point to allow it to sink in.
  • Repeat the point for those who may have wandered, and summarize your key messages at regular times (and certainly at the end of your presentation);
  • Do something emotionally relevant, e.g. tell a joke or bring an anecdote;
  • Switch the medium: draw on a whiteboard, show a video, run a short demo;
  • Change the speaker. If you really have so many important things to tell, just consider bringing a colleague to offload part of your speech to.

tl;dr is internet slang for too long; didn’t read. It’s often used on online discussion forums or in the comments section of an article to say that some text was ignored because of its length. A less diplomatic definition on suggests that the acronym is frequently used by lazy, ignorant people, when something exceeds their ability to read or when they lack the semantic capacity to comprehend or respond to a post.

The title of this blog post, tl;dl, is a variant to the above letterword, and stands for too long; didn’t listen. If you don’t want your listeners to be goldfish, you’d better make sure that your presentations are not tl;dl. Make sure that your presentation is to the point, that your words are worth listening to, and that you present with passion and persuasion.


Snap. Timing is everything.

“Timing has always been a key element in my life. I have been blessed to have been in the right place at the right time” – Buzz Aldrin, American astronaut and the second human to walk on the moon

If you want to surprise or impress your audience, then do it right. Have a look at this video clip from the 1978 BBC documentary Connections.

This is  probably the best-timed shot in television history. And it’s 100% real. Forty years ago, fake news was still an unknown phenomenon. No video manipulation or chroma keying. Presenter James Burke had only one chance to record this scene and to snap the rocket launch…

It takes more than a template

Recently, a colleague sent me a template file for a presentation we’re working on together. Meh, it was merely one single slide, with our company logo on it, a title placeholder, and five pre-defined text fields (12-point font each. But, well, I’ve already given my opinion about too small presentation fonts in an older post).

To make things clear, I have no intention to format the visuals I’m creating for this joint presentation with a – or particularly this – single slide layout. A presentation template should provide a common look and feel, NOT a uniform one. It’s a guidance for the author, rather than a prescription. A key purpose (maybe even the most important one) of a template is to create and enforce corporate brand identity. Making sure the audience knows that’s your company’s representative who’s speaking (even without being presented with a logo on each slide).

Another motivation for distributing templates is to keep up visual consistency by giving you and your colleagues a common structure, style, and layout for creating slides. So, when you distribute a template, make sure it offers several alternative layouts: one for the title page, for bulleted text, for tables, for charts, etc.

Finally, there are use cases for spartan templates like the one I mentioned above: e.g. data sheets, financial reports, or project plans. Though I would hardly call these presentations, as their authors are only (mis)using presentation creation software to quickly and easily craft beautifully formatted documents – a.k.a. slideumentation.

But never forget that it takes more than a (even sexy) template for creating compelling presentations…

Here are some of my other posts about using templates and formatting your slides:

Spoiler alert!

I just finished the first draft of a sales PowerPoint for a new solution that my company is developing. Following my own blog’s advice (see links to a few relevant posts below) I crafted a compelling storyline, and structured the presentation following AIDA and Golden Circle principles.

Then a colleague sent me this comment: “Maybe you should start with an executive summary slide to set the scene…”

If you go to a movie theater, you don’t want the film to begin with a spoiler, do you? You don’t want to be told during the very first minutes who dunit, or which main characters will die in the next one and a half hour. Unless, in the exceptional case, when the screenplay’s structured as a flash back. As a marketer, however, I seriously doubt if it makes any sense to tell the story of an exciting new product in the past tense…

Image from Scared to Death, directed by Christy Cabanne (1947)

That’s why you’ll never see me start a presentation with an executive summary. No sir, not even with a table of contents or an agenda slide!

More reading:

Whistles and bells and spoke cards

I remember that, when I was a kid, we used to place playing cards in the spokes of our bicycle wheels. As the cards made quite some noise when they flapped against the spokes, they created a false perception of speed (just like some motor bikers or car freaks believe the more racket their engine produces, the faster the vehicle will go.)

Well, from experience I can tell you that these spoke cards where nothing more than whistles and bells. My bike didn’t run any faster. But, the idea that an object that makes a lot of noise or reflects a lot of light must be very impressive, very powerful, or very expensive still exists. Take, for example, the average boom box kid who thinks he’ll rock everyone who passes by. Or the gold-colored smart phone owner who wants to make his/her cheap phone look kind of premium. Or even worse, those people who buy a bling bling case to pimp up their mobile device to a pocketful of glitter and glamour.

A similar syndrome also exists with certain speakers at public events. I still remember the guy dressed up in a three-piece black suit talking to… a geeky audience at a software developer conference (you may revisit my “Dress to impress” and “About white shirt, black shirt, and tee-shirt gigs” posts to read more about speaker dress codes.) Or with those business presenters that create fancy slide decks, ornamented with comic sans text, kitschy colors, or meaningless clip art (slide design topics also covered by my “Don’t feed the chameleons” and “Why look and feel matter in business presentations” posts.)

But, always keep in mind that whistles and bells are not half as bad as smoke and mirrors – showing off with a gold-colored iPhone never compares to wearing a fake Rolex. Or to delivering a presentation that you didn’t prepare yourself about a topic you hardly know anything about. Or to telling lies to, cheating on, or fooling your customers… (as reported on in my “Marketing, promises, and real products” post.)

From accumulation to understatement

Figures of speech can help listeners and readers understand what we say and write. But they also help make our language more colorful and make our stories more engaging (hey, wasn’t that an anaphora?) As I use them frequently in my presentations and my blog posts, here’s a (non-exhaustive) list with 10 of my favorite rhetorical figures…

Accumulation = gathering, repeating, and recapitulating previously stated arguments. It may be used to simply summarize your key points (as I’m often doing at the end of a presentation), but also to re-emphasize your message in a forceful way. Here’s an example of how I used accumulation to conclude my old-but-gold “Don’t feed the chameleons” article: “So next time you need to build a business presentation, start well in advance and take your time to tune each slide. Don’t take existing material for granted. Be creative. Be consistent. Be professional.”

Alliteration = the repetition of an initial consonant sound. This works extremely well to make your blog/presentation/slide headlines stand out. Just think of the post on this site that I titled: “Proudly promoting my president’s presentation pizzazz.”

Anaphora = a technique where several phrases begin with the same word or words. I often use it in combination with a rule of three, like the “Be creative. Be consistent. Be professional.” in the accumulation example above.

Antithesis = the juxtaposition of contrasting ideas in balanced phrases. Take, for example, “women have not been heard or believed if they dared to speak their truth” in Oprah Winfrey’s 2018 Golden Globes speech or “for those who still can’t comprehend, because they refuse to” in Emma González’ March For Our Lives address.

Chiasmus = a verbal pattern in which the second half of an expression or a sentence is balanced against the first but with the parts reversed. John F. Kennedy’s “Let us never negotiate out of fear, but let us never fear to negotiate” is a famous example of a chiasmus.

Hyperbole = using an extravagant statement or exaggeration to emphasize a point or to evoke strong feelings. When I wrote that Fidel Castro’s listenership may have called itself lucky after a 7 hours and 10 minutes speech, and that it may have taken the late Cuban leader almost 54 working days to prepare his address, I might have used a couple of hyperboles.

Metaphor = an implied comparison between seemingly unrelated objects and/or concepts offers a creative means to convey much more content compared to only talking about the naked topic of your presentation. Over the past years I have written several blog posts about the metaphors that I have used in my presentations. Do you remember what a highway junction, a cherry pie, or a volcano stand for? If not, you may revisit these respective posts: “Highway 61 revisited”, “Easy as cherry pie”, and “Making the volcano”.

Paradox = a statement that sounds like it contradicts itself, but which often contains some kernel of truth or reason. A few years ago, I closed my presentation at an Internet of Things conference with a “the best things in life aren’t things” slide. Although I presented a clear contradiction in terms, no single person in the audience questioned the truth of my statement.

Personification = giving human qualities to non-living things or ideas. When, in one of my articles about the Internet of Things, I suggested that enterprises should step through the mirror – like Alice [in Wonderland] stepped through the looking glass – I was perfectly aware that a company is not a human being.

Understatement = when a writer or speaker deliberately uses words that lessen or minimize the importance of an issue or a situation. The presentation that I mentioned above in my paradox bullet, was titled “The unbearable lightness or IoT forecasting”. I chose this title to make a polite statement about the fact that industry analysts often cite widely diverging figures about the same topic.

Entertain. Educate. Engage.

In an older article about “five do’s and don’ts for speakers at B2B events,” I briefly touched upon organizers and audiences’ expectations of presenters at public events. I identified them as the 3 E’s: entertain, educate, and engage.

Well, I’m once again at the Mobile World Congress in Barcelona, and as with previous editions I attended, I’m dedicating a blog post to my impressions, learnings, and experience from/at one of the biggest technology shows on earth.

This year I’m at the Nokia booth again, delivering a presentation about the future home entertainment experience. I’m talking about how new technologies, new business models, and evolving consumer behavior are changing the nature of, and the way we consume video content. I’m performing in a quite spectacular setup, that we nicknamed our video cave.

This brings me to the first of the 3E’s:

  • Entertain: while preparing for the event, I have intensely worked together with the creative agency that built the booth and created some exclusive video content for the demo. And IMHO the result is amazing. My narrative – a mix of trend watching, storytelling, and use case examples – is supported by spectacular 180° surround video images that occupy 3 walls and 33 display monitors.

My company is in business, and so am I. As such I, am expected to be more than just a booth entertainer. That’s why my demo also educates and calls for engagement.

  • Educate: I’m talking about our vision on how video, AR, and VR content will be produced, distributed, and consumed in 2025. What it means for service providers and their customers. I’m talking about the “why” and the “how,” and not about the “what” (do you still remember my post about the golden circle?). I’m showing a short video about our vision, and then I explain the role of technology and my company’s products, but I don’t go into the details and neither do I push a hard sales message.

  • Engage: I always try to keep my talk conversational and adapt it to each session’s audience (I’m giving 15-20 presentations each day, and MWC visitors are a mix of international telecom executives, service marketers, and technology experts.)Those are often the best moments of the day, when I just sit down and have a good conversation with people about the things I’m telling and about their daily and future business – while collecting business cards, and taking lead information.

And when I receive positive response from my audience or when our Chinese competitors nod approvingly from behind their camera phones, I feel that I’ve done a good job.

But, of course, spending a whole week at a big event like the Mobile World Congress is so much more than giving presentations and demos. It’s also reconnecting with colleagues and friends you haven’t seen for a year, and enjoying tapas and a good glass of wine with them at night.

Here are the other posts I’ve written about/at the MWC:

My design agency is called none

Following a conference talk, one of my fellow keynote speakers once asked me which agency created my slides, because he “liked my visuals more than his”. My answer was straightforward and simple: I always create my own materials.

For sure, crafting a nice looking PowerPoint takes a good chunk of your time, but IMHO it’s always worth the effort. Of course there are graphic design agencies, who are more than happy doing the work for you. There are many good such agencies, but also mediocre ones. No offence to the good ones, but I had a not-so-positive experience working with a graphic (re)designer in the past. That’s an understatement, as he totally ruined the concept behind my presentation when he neglected and overrode some (implicit) color coding I had built in.

At another occasion, another graphics guy introduced an overload of visual effects and animations to my slideshow. I had to tell them that such animations distract the audience from my key messages, and force me to concentrate on ‎timing and control instead of on my narrative. Furthermore, animated slides are often hard to edit and/or update, because of duplication and non-accessibility of grouped and hidden objects.

For a colleague’s presentation, another designer (?) created a single slide with 133 (!) words, written in 10 point (!) font size. I’m aware that not everyone is a follower of Guy Kawasaki’s 10-20-30 rule, but this specific visual was unreadable, unpresentable, and thus unacceptable.

Here’s another piece of advice: always double-check your original messages after bullets or handout texts have been rewritten. Particularly in the case when you’re using technical language or subject specific jargon I once discovered that my Linux kernel was faulty replaced by a nucleus. If content needs to be translated to a foreign language (even if it’s one you’re more or less familiar with) it may be a good idea to have the presentation reviewed by a native-speaking colleague.

Finally, like every father who thinks his kids are the most beautiful children on earth, I often prefer my original slides over the revamped ones. They contain my visual signature and they’re part of my personal brand. That’s why my graphic design agency is called None. And when I asked the other speaker about how much he had paid the design company for authoring his presentation, I was flabbergasted by the amount of money he spent per slide. Well, if I ever lose my voice, I know a lucrative alternative to public speaking: creating or remaking other people’s slides…

If you’re looking for slide design tips and some do’s and don’ts for using fonts, color, images, bulleted lists, multimedia, and templates in your slides, you may read my article “Why look and feel matter in business presentations“.

About white shirt, black shirt, and tee-shirt gigs

“Clothes and manners do not make the man; but when he is made, they greatly improve his appearance.” – Arthur Ashe, American tennis player and winner of 3 Grand Slam titles

I may remember that I used the above quote in an older post, “Dress to impress,” in which I wrote about how your attire can change your image or enforce your message as a public speaker.

Just like people use the metaphor of white vs. blue collars to classify jobs, segment workers, or even describe different social classes, I started thinking of public speaking engagements in terms of white shirts, black shirts, and tee-shirts.

Different audiences require different vestments, and very often a different presentation style.

  • White shirt. I (almost) always wear a white shirt when representing my company in front of a business audience or when speaking to government officials. As I’m a marketing guy, I don’t consider wearing a tie a must. Only when the event is so official or when my audience is really executive or exclusive, I’d take the challenge and the effort of knotting my tie property.
  • Black shirt. A black shirt is certainly less formal and (IMHO) looks trendier on stage than a white one. I reserve my all-black garb for when I’m giving thought-leader-style keynotes or when I’m delivering a corporate innovation pitch. Note that a black turtleneck might be a good alternative for a collared shirt. But keep in mind that this outfit (combined with blue jeans and a pair of grey sneakers) has been worn before by – and was part of the personal brand of – a person called Steve Jobs. A technology and business icon with great charisma and an unprecedented speaking talent. Well, personally, I don’t have the ambition to and won’t take the risk of being compared with the late Apple CEO.
  • Tee-shirt. The people who know me personally will tell you that I don’t have the physics for wearing a tee-shirt in front of a large audience. Or more simply said: my belly is in the way. Still, a plain-colored or printed tee-shirt (mind the images and/or texts that you’re displaying!) can be an ideal outfit when addressing technology innovators, business disrupters, and other lean & mean startups. Wearing a tee makes you look like an “equal among equals” and may facilitate informal conversations with your audience.

Related articles that are worth (re)reading:

Shhh, this is confidential information — or not

This is going to be one of my shorter posts on this blog. Or, maybe I should call it rather a rant than a post. I’m writing this on a Friday night, while still on a business trip abroad. I was inspired for it earlier today, while I was listening to a public keynote presentation at technology conference.

The content of the talk was actually quite interesting. Even so interesting that the speaker had put “CONFIDENTIAL” on each of his 20+ slides. OMG, this guy was showing company confidential content to 250 people, with probably a few tens of competitors in the room! Or was he not? Either the presenter must have been well aware of the importance and secrecy of his content, or he was making a notorious layout blunder. Considering the material on the slides, I can only assume that the latter is true.

How can a professional B2B presenter, who takes himself seriously, do such a thing? Either he didn’t create his own visuals, and just copy’n’pasted existing corporate material, or used a wrong presentation template. Or he neglected reviewing and rehearsing his presentation, and as such overlooked the security classification at the bottom of the slides. Or (probably most unlikely) he was really violating his company’s information security rules by showing classified information to a non-trusted audience.

Putting a “COPYRIGHT” notice on your slides is a good practice, however, because (if you’re lucky) it may protect your intellectual and creative property from unauthorized reuse. But, personally, I would have made a bit of an effort in removing the confidentiality classification from my company’s presentation template. Writing “CONFIDENTIAL” on a public presentation is just useless and it makes the speaker look silly.